Kuala Lumpur Green Space Fragmentation Index Analysis and Green Corridors Suggestion using Geographic Information System


  • Fateen Nabilla Rasli Center for Research in Development, Social and Environment (SEEDS), Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia
  • Kasturi Devi Kanniah Department of Geoinformation, Faculty of Built Environment and Surveying, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia




Green Space, Green Corridor, GIS, Remote Sensing, Fragmentation


More than half of the world’s population lives in urban areas, and the United Nations has projected that nearly all future global population growth will occur in urban areas. Urbanization has caused rapid industrial, transportation and residential development at the expense of environmental deterioration. Activities involving large-scale land clearances are conducted to satisfy human needs for expansion. The clearances have caused green area fragmentation and patches, especially in the rapidly developing urban areas. This study is aimed at detecting the current coverage of green space in the metropolitan city of Kuala Lumpur (KL), the capital city of Malaysia and monitor its fragmentation using a very high spatial resolution satellite data. Green cover which includes trees, grass, and shrubs of KL was first extracted from the SPOT 6 data using Object Oriented method which can classified the green covers. The fragmented green spaces in KL were analyzed using a range of fragmentation indices namely Number of Patches, Edge Density, Class Area, Total Landscape Area, Mean Patch Size and Mean Shape Index using the Patch Analyst tool embedded in the ArcGIS software version 10.0 to study the patterns of green patches. The connectivity of the green patches was studied and proposed to overcome the fragmentation problems. Kuala Lumpur (KL) was chosen as the case study as it is a rapidly developing city with a significant loss of green space. The urban green spaces were more fragmented as there were more built-up areas. Results of the green cover extraction reveal that the KL city centre had the lowest percentage of green cover (2.09 %) area to the urban area compared to the other five zones (Sentul Manjalara 5.03 %, Wangsa Maju Maluri 6.09 %, Damansara Penchala 11.22 %, Bukit Jalil Seputeh 7.07 % and Bandar Tun Razak Sg Besi 7.42 %). Since KL’s urban growth predominantly consists of compact building blocks, the highest land use was believed to be for commercial purposes. Around 66% of industrial and commercial activities are concentrated in the KL city centre, resulting in a diverse green space structure and a growing gap between patches in the city centre zone. The green patches were then connected to create green corridors in the city centre. Several parameters were involved in the analysis, including area, distance, types of land use (green areas and place of interest for the origin and destination), slopes under 7% value (topology with flat surfaces) and road networks. The origin and destination points were analyzed using the network analysis method in Quantum GIS to produce routes with the shortest path algorithm. Results showed that six routes were suitable for designing green corridors in the KL city centre area connecting green spaces and places of interest. All six routes were analyzed every 400 meters using Google Earth Street View to see the surrounding facilities. The Green Corridor Route 6 was the most appropriate for people, as it included parks and places of interest for city dwellers. The green corridor could then be promoted as a walkable area to minimize carbon emissions in the urban area, reducing the urban heat island phenomenon and increasing green connectivity for a better urban life.




How to Cite

Rasli, F. N., & Kanniah, K. D. (2023). Kuala Lumpur Green Space Fragmentation Index Analysis and Green Corridors Suggestion using Geographic Information System. Journal of Advanced Geospatial Science & Technology, 3(2), 176–200. https://doi.org/10.11113/jagst.v3n2.66